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Term Paper Mills: Statutes and Legislative Information

This website contains information for the International Center for Academic Integrity regarding term paper mills.

California: Education Code

66400. No person shall prepare, offer to prepare, cause to be prepared, sell, or otherwise distribute any term paper, thesis, dissertation, or other written material for another person, for a fee or other compensation, with the knowledge, or under circumstances in which he should reasonably have known, that such term paper, thesis, dissertation, or other written material is to be submitted by any other person for academic credit at any public or private college, university, or other institution of higher learning in this state. (Enacted by Stats. 1976, Ch. 1010.)

66401. No person shall make or disseminate, with the intent to induce any other person to enter into any obligation relating thereto, any statement, written or oral, that he will prepare, cause to be prepared, sell, or otherwise distribute any term paper, thesis, dissertation, or other written material, for a fee or other compensation, for or on behalf of any person who has been assigned the written preparation of such term paper, thesis, dissertation, or other written material for academic credit at any public or private college, university, or other institution of higher learning in this state. (Enacted by Stats. 1976, Ch. 1010.)

66402. Any court of competent jurisdiction is hereby authorized to grant such relief as is necessary to enforce the provisions of this chapter, including the issuance of an injunction. (Enacted by Stats. 1976, Ch. 1010.)

66403. Actions for injunction under the provisions of this chapter may be brought in the name of the people of the State of California upon their own complaint or upon the complaint of any person, or in the name of any public or private college, university, or other institution of higher learning, acting for the interest of itself, its students, or the general public. (Enacted by Stats. 1976, Ch. 1010.)

Colorado Revised Statutes

23-4-101. Legislative declaration.  The general assembly hereby declares that the practice of trafficking in academic materials, commonly referred to as ghostwriting, serves no legitimate purpose and tends to undermine the academic process to the detriment of students, the academic community, and the public and that such practice should not be permitted to continue.  Source: L. 73: p. 1346, § 1. C.R.S. 1963: § 124-28-1.

23-4-102. Definitions.  As used in this article, unless the context otherwise requires:
(1) "Person" means any individual, partnership, corporation, or association.
(2) "Prepare" means to put into condition for intended use. "Prepare" does not include the mere typing or assembling of papers nor the mere furnishing of information or research.  Source: L. 73: p. 1346, § 1. C.R.S. 1963: § 124-28-2.

23-4-103. Preparation, sale, and distribution of academic materials - advertising.  (1) No person shall prepare, offer to prepare, cause to be prepared, sell, or distribute any term paper, thesis, dissertation, or other written material for another person for a fee or other compensation with the knowledge, or under circumstances in which he should reasonably have known, that such term paper, thesis, dissertation, or other written material is to be submitted by any other person for academic credit at any public or private college, university, or other institution of higher education in this state.
(2) No person shall make or disseminate, with the intent to induce any other person to enter into any obligation relating thereto, any statement, written or oral, that he will prepare, cause to be prepared, sell, or distribute any term paper, thesis, dissertation, or other written material for a fee or other compensation for or on behalf of any person who has been assigned the written preparation of such term paper, thesis, dissertation, or other written material for academic credit at any public or private college, university, or other institution of higher education in this state. Source: L. 73: p. 1346, § 1. C.R.S. 1963: § 124-28-3.

23-4-104. Injunctions.  (1) Any court of competent jurisdiction may grant such relief as is necessary to enforce the provisions of this article, including the issuance of an injunction.
(2) Actions for injunction under the provisions of this article may be brought in the name of the people of the state of Colorado by the attorney general or by the district attorney for the judicial district in which the conduct to be enjoined took place or by any public or private college, university, or other institution of higher education acting for the interest of itself, its students, or the general public. Source: L. 73: p. 1347, § 1. C.R.S. 1963: § 124-28-4.

23-4-105. Other remedies.  The provisions of this article are not exclusive. Nothing in this article shall be construed to preempt or in any other way to limit, diminish, or imply the absence of rights of any party, public or private, against any person in connection with any of the acts described in section 23-4-103Source: L. 73: p. 1347, § 1. C.R.S. 1963: § 124-28-5.

23-4-106. Construction of article. This article shall be liberally construed in order to prevent the practices described therein. Source: L. 73: p. 1347, § 1. C.R.S. 1963: § 124-28-6.

Connecticut General Statutes

Ch. 949b Academic Crimes

Sec. 53-392a. Definitions. As used in this chapter: “Person” means any individual, partnership, corporation, limited liability company or association; “assignment” means any specific written, recorded, pictorial, artistic or other academic task that is intended for submission to any university, college, academy, school or other educational institution which is chartered, incorporated, licensed, registered or supervised by this state, in fulfillment of the requirements of a degree, diploma, certificate or course of study at any such educational institution; and “prepare” means to create, write or in any way produce in whole or substantial part a term paper, thesis, dissertation, essay, report or other written, recorded, pictorial, artistic or other assignment for a fee.(P.A. 73-581, S. 5-9, S. 180, 189.) History: P.A. 95-79 redefined “person” to include a limited liability company, effective May 31, 1995.

Sec. 53-392b. Preparation of assignments for students attending educational institutions prohibited. (a) No person shall prepare, offer to prepare, cause to be prepared, sell or offer for sale any term paper, thesis, dissertation, essay, report or other written, recorded, pictorial, artistic or other assignment knowing, or under the circumstances having reason to know, that said assignment is intended for submission either in whole or substantial part under the name of a student other than the author of the term paper, thesis, dissertation, essay, report or other written, recorded, pictorial, artistic or other assignment in fulfillment of the requirements for a degree, diploma, certificate or course of study at any university, college, academy, school or other educational institution which is chartered, incorporated, licensed, registered or supervised by this state.

(b) Nothing contained in this chapter shall prevent any person from providing tutorial assistance, research material, information or other assistance to persons enrolled in a university, college, academy, school or other educational institution which is chartered, incorporated, licensed, registered or supervised by this state, which is not intended for submission directly or in substantial part as an assignment under the student’s name to such educational institution in fulfillment of the requirements for a degree, diploma, certificate or course of study or to prevent any person from rendering for a fee services which include the typing, research, assembling, transcription, reproduction or editing of a manuscript or other assignment which he has not prepared at the request of or on behalf of the purchaser. (P.A. 73-581, S. 2, 3.)

Sec. 53-392c. Excepted actions. Nothing contained in this chapter shall prevent any person from selling or offering for sale a publication or other written material which shall have been registered under the United States laws of copyright, provided the owner of such copyright shall have given his authorization or approval for such sale and provided such publication or other written material shall not be intended for submission as a dissertation, thesis, term paper, essay, report or other written assignment to an educational institution within the state of Connecticut in fulfillment of the requirements for a degree, diploma, certificate or course of study. (P.A. 73-581, S. 4.)

Sec. 53-392d. Enforcement by the Attorney General. Whenever the Attorney General, or his deputy, has reason to believe that any person has violated any of the provisions of this chapter, he may bring an action in the superior court for the judicial district of Hartford to enjoin the continuance of such violation; and, if it appears to the satisfaction of the court that the defendant has, in fact, violated this chapter, an injunction may be issued enjoining and restraining any further violation, without requiring proof that any person has, in fact, been injured or damaged thereby. In connection with any such proposed application, the Attorney General may conduct an investigation, subpoena witnesses and documents deemed by him necessary to the conduct of such investigation and, in the event of noncompliance with any such subpoena, may apply to the superior court for the judicial district of Hartford, which may issue an order requiring such compliance. (P.A. 73-581, S. 6; P.A. 76-436, S. 278, 681; P.A. 80-483, S. 172, 186; P.A. 88-230, S. 1, 12; P.A. 90-98, S. 1, 2; P.A. 93-142, S. 4, 7, 8; P.A. 95-220, S. 4–6.) 

Sec. 53-392e. Unlawful preparation of academic assignments: Class B misdemeanor. Any person who violates any provision of this chapter shall be guilty of a class B misdemeanor. Any court of competent jurisdiction may grant such further relief as is necessary to enforce the provisions of this chapter, including the issuance of an injunction. (P.A. 73-581, S. 5.)

Florida Statutes

Fla. Stat. 877.17 Works to be submitted by students without substantial alteration.

(1) It shall be unlawful for any person or business entity to sell, offer to sell, or advertise for sale any term paper, thesis, dissertation, essay, or report or any written, recorded, pictorial, artistic, or other assignment which the seller or advertiser knew or reasonably should have known was intended for submission by a student, unaltered to any substantial degree, in fulfillment of the requirements for a degree, diploma, certificate, or course of study at a university, college, academy, school, or other educational institution in the state.
(2) This section shall not prevent any person or educational institution from providing tutorial assistance, research material, information, or courses in research or writing unless this service includes the preparation, research, or writing of a report or paper as outlined in subsection (1). No person shall be prevented by this section from selling or offering to sell services which include the typing, assembling, transcription, reproduction, or editing of a manuscript or other assignment prepared by the purchaser.
(3) Any person violating the provisions of this section is guilty of a misdemeanor of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083. History: s. 19, ch. 80-295; s. 4, ch. 80-378; s. 222, ch. 91-224.

Illinois Compiled Statutes

Sec. 0.01.  Short title.  This Act may be cited as the Academic Plagiarism Act.  (Source: P.A. 86-1324.)

Sec. 1.  The assisting or promoting of plagiarism in institutions of higher education is declared to be against the public policy of this state.

     Upon written petition by the chief executive officer of the campus of any accredited institution of higher education in this State, the Attorney General or the State's Attorney of the county in which such campus is located, is authorized to institute civil proceedings in the Circuit Court to enjoin the sale, preparation for sale, advertising for sale, or offering for sale of any academic papers.  The court may grant the injunction upon finding that (1) the preparer, advertiser or seller has purposely engaged in a course of conduct which he reasonably should have known would result in the submission of such academic papers, substantially unchanged, as original work by any person other than the author in partial or toal fulfillment of requirements for academic credit at such accredited institution of higher education, and (2) that for the prevention of future conduct of the same character, the public interest requires that such preparation, advertising or selling be enjoined.

     For purposes of this Act, "academic papers" includes any theme, essay, term paper, book report, thesis dissertation, or other academic papers.

     The proceedings authorized by this Act shall be conducted in accordance with the Civil Practice Law and applicable rules of court.  (Source:  P.A. 82-783)

Maine Revised Statutes

§705. Criminal simulation

1.   A person is guilty of criminal simulation if:

  A. With intent to defraud, he makes or alters any property so that it appears to have an age, rarity, quality, composition, source or authorship which it does not in fact possess; or with knowledge of its true character and with intent to defraud, he transfers or possesses property so simulated; or

  B. In return for a pecuniary benefit;

      (1) he authors, prepares, writes, sells, transfers or possesses with intent to sell or transfer, an essay, term paper or other manuscript knowing that it will be, or believing that it probably will be, submitted by another person in satisfaction of a course, credit or degree requirement at a university or other degree, diploma or certificate-granting educational institution; or

     ***

 2.   Criminal simulation is a Class E crime. Source: 1975, c. 499; 1979, c. 129.

Maryland Code

26–201.  

(a) In this section, “academic paper” means any theme, essay, term paper, book report, report, thesis, dissertation, or other written assignment.

(b)  A person may not sell or offer for sale any assistance in the preparation, research, or writing of an academic paper if he knows that the buyer intends to submit the academic paper substantially unchanged to an educational institution as the original work of someone other than the author, in fulfilling the requirements for a degree, diploma, certificate, or course of study. (c) This section does not prevent:

    (1) An educational institution, or any of its faculty or staff, from offering courses, instruction, counseling, or tutoring in research or writing as part of a program authorized by the institution;

    (2)  Any person from offering tutorial assistance that does not include the preparation, research, or writing of an academic paper intended for submission to an educational institution in fulfilling the requirements for a degree, diploma, certificate, or course of study; or

   (3)   Any person from typing, transcribing, or reproducing a manuscript for a fee.

(d)   Any person who violates any provision of this section is guilty of a misdemeanor and on conviction is subject to a fine not exceeding $1,000, imprisonment not exceeding 6 months, or both.

Massachusetts General Laws

Sec. 50.  Sale of Research Papers, etc.; taking of examinations for another at educational institutions.  Section 50. Whoever, alone or in concert with others, sells to another, or arranges for or assists in such sale for another, a theme, term paper, thesis or other paper or the written results of research, knowing or having reason to know that such theme, term paper, thesis or other paper or research results or substantial material therefrom will be submitted or used by some other person for academic credit and represented as the original work of such person at an educational institution in the commonwealth or elsewhere without proper attribution as to source, or whoever takes an examination for another at any educational institution in the commonwealth, shall be punished by a fine of not more than one hundred dollars or by imprisonment for not more than six months, or both.  (Added by St. 1973, c. 874)

Nevada Revised Statutes

207.320 Preparation or sale of academic writings. Any person who prepares for sale or sells any term paper, thesis, dissertation or similar writing intending such writing to be submitted to an academic institution as the work of any person not the author in fulfillment of a requirement for completion of a course of study, award of a degree or other academic credit is guilty of a misdemeanor. (Added to NRS by 1973, 1161)

New Jersey Statutes

18A:2-3.  Preparation, offering for sale of certain documents; penalty
12.  a. No person shall, for any fee, or other remuneration, prepare, offer to prepare, cause to be prepared, sell or offer for sale any term paper, thesis, dissertation, essay, report or other written, recorded, pictorial, artistic or other assignment knowing, or under the circumstances having reason to know, that said assignment is intended for submission either in whole or substantial part under a student's name in fulfillment of the requirements for a degree, diploma, certificate, course or courses of study at any university, college,  academy, school or other educational institution.

b. Nothing contained in this section shall prevent any person from providing tutorial assistance, research material, information or other assistance to persons enrolled in a university, college, academy, school or other educational institution, which is not intended for submission directly or in substantial part as an assignment under the student's name to such educational institution in fulfillment of the requirements for a degree, diploma, certificate or course of study.  Nor shall any person be prevented by this act from rendering services for a fee which include the typing, research, assembling, transcription, reproduction or editing of a manuscript or other assignment which he has not prepared at the request of or on behalf of the purchaser.

c. Anyone convicted of violating any provision of this act shall be subject to a civil penalty of up to $1,000.00 which shall be collected in a summary manner pursuant to "the penalty enforcement law" (N.J.S.2A:58-1 et seq.) in the Superior Court or any municipal court.  The Superior Court may also grant further relief necessary to enforce the provisions of this section, including the issuance of an injunction.

d. Actions for injunction under the provisions of this act may be brought in the name of the people of this State upon their own complaint or upon the complaint of any person, or any public or private college, university, academy, school or other educational institution which is charted, incorporated, licensed, registered or supervised by this State, acting for the interest of itself, its students, or the general public.  (L.1999,c.90, s.12.)

New York Consolidated Laws

213-b. Unlawful sale of dissertations, theses and term papers.

  1. No person shall, for financial consideration, or the promise of financial consideration, prepare, offer to prepare, cause to be prepared, sell or offer for sale to any person any written material which the seller knows, is informed or has reason to believe is intended for submission as a dissertation, thesis, term paper, essay, report or other written assignment by a student in a university, college, academy, school or other educational institution to such institution or to a course, seminar or degree program held by such institution.

  2. Nothing herein contained shall prevent such educational institution or any member of its faculty or staff, from offering  courses, instruction, counseling or tutoring for research or writing as part of a curriculum or other program conducted by such educational institution. Nor shall this section prevent any educational institution or any member of its faculty or staff from authorizing students to use statistical, computer, or any other services which may be required or permitted by such educational institution in the preparation, research or writing of a dissertation, thesis, term paper, essay, report or other written assignment. Nor shall this section prevent tutorial assistance rendered by other persons which does not include the preparation, research or writing of a dissertation, thesis, term paper, essay, report or other written  assignment  intended  for submission to such educational institution in fulfillment of the requirements for a degree, diploma, certificate or course of study. Nor shall any person be prevented by the provisions of this section from rendering services for a fee which shall be limited to the typing, transcription or reproduction of a manuscript.

  3. Nothing contained within this section shall prevent any person from selling or offering for sale a publication or other written material which shall have been registered under the United States laws of copyright, provided, however, that the owner of such copyright shall have given his authorization or approval for such sale and provided further that such publication or other written material shall not be intended for submission as a dissertation, thesis, term paper, essay, report or other written assignment to such educational institution within the state of New York in fulfillment of the requirements for a degree, diploma, certificate or course of study.

  4. No person shall sell, assign or otherwise transfer for business or for any other purpose to any person any information and material of a personal or private nature acquired from a purchaser of a dissertation, thesis, term paper, essay, report or other written assignment without the prior consent of such purchaser. The term "information and material of a personal or private nature" as used in this subdivision shall include, but not be limited to the name of such purchaser, his address and telephone number, the name of such educational institution, the name or number of the course, the name of the faculty member or members for whom such written assignment has been prepared and any description of the research involved or the nature of such written assignment.

  5. A violation of the provisions of this section shall constitute a  class B misdemeanor.

  6. The attorney general and district attorney of the county wherein a violation of this section occurs shall have concurrent authority to investigate and prosecute any violation of this section and any related  violations discovered during the course of such investigation.

  7. Whenever there shall be a violation of this section, an application also may be made by the attorney general in the name of the people of the state of New York to a court or justice having jurisdiction to issue an injunction, and upon notice to the defendant of not less than five days, to enjoin and restrain the continuance of such violation; and if it shall appear to the satisfaction of the court or justice that the defendant has, in fact, violated this section, an injunction may be issued by such court or justice, enjoining and restraining any further violation, without requiring proof that any person has, in fact, been injured or damaged thereby. In any such proceeding the court may make allowances to the attorney general as provided in section eighty-three hundred three, subdivision six of the civil practice law and rules. In connection with any such proposed application, the attorney general is authorized to take proof and make a determination of the relevant facts and to issue subpoenas in accordance with the civil practice law and rules. Additionally, the attorney general may apply in any such proceeding for a monetary penalty of not more than one thousand dollars per violation.

2013 Proposed, not enacted, amendment:

North Carolina General Statutes

14-118.2.  Assisting, etc., in obtaining academic credit by fraudulent means.

(a) It shall be unlawful for any person, firm, corporation or association to assist any student, or advertise, offer or attempt to assist any student, in obtaining or in attempting to obtain, by fraudulent means, any academic credit, grade or test score, or any diploma, certificate or other instrument purporting to confer any literary, scientific, professional, technical or other degree in any course of study in any university, college, academy or other educational institution. The activity prohibited by this subsection includes, but is not limited to, preparing or advertising, offering, or attempting to prepare a term paper, thesis, or dissertation for another; impersonating or advertising, offering or attempting to impersonate another in taking or attempting to take an examination; and the giving or changing of a grade or test score or offering to give or change a grade or test score in exchange for an article of value or money.

(b) Any person, firm, corporation or association violating any of the provisions of this section shall be guilty of a Class 2 misdemeanor.  This section includes the acts of a teacher or other school official; however, the provisions of this section shall not apply to the acts of one student in assisting another student as herein defined if the former is duly registered in an educational institution in North Carolina and is subject to the disciplinary authority thereof. (1963, c. 781; 1969, c. 1224, s. 7; 1989, c. 144; 1993, c. 539, s. 63; 1994, Ex. Sess., c. 24, s. 14(c).)

Oregon Revised Statutes

      165.114 Sale of educational assignments. (1) No person shall sell or offer to sell an assignment to another person knowing, or under the circumstances having reason to know, that the whole or a substantial part of the assignment is intended to be submitted under a student’s name in fulfillment of the requirements for a degree, diploma, certificate or course of study at any post-secondary institution.

      (2) No person shall sell or offer to sell to another person any assistance in the preparation of an assignment knowing, or under the circumstances having reason to know, that the whole or a substantial part of the assignment is intended to be submitted under a student’s name in fulfillment of the requirements for a degree, diploma, certificate or course of study at any post-secondary institution.

      (3) Nothing in this section prohibits a person from rendering for a monetary fee:

      (a) Tutorial assistance if the assistance is not intended to be submitted in whole or in substantial part as an assignment; or

      (b) Service in the form of typing, transcribing, assembling, reproducing or editing an assignment if this service is not intended to make substantive changes in the assignment.

      (4) A person who violates any provision of this section commits a Class A violation.

      (5) A person against whom a judgment has been entered under subsection (4) of this section shall, upon conviction for any subsequent violation of this section, be subject to a fine of not more than $10,000.

      (6) In addition to any fine imposed under subsections (4) and (5) of this section, a court of competent jurisdiction may grant such further relief as is necessary to enforce the provisions of this section, including the issuance of an injunction. A suit for injunction under subsections (1) to (6) of this section may be brought in the name of the State of Oregon upon the complaint of the Attorney General or any district attorney.

      (7) As used in subsections (1) to (6) of this section unless the context requires otherwise:

      (a) “Assignment” means any specific written, recorded, pictorial, artistic or other academic task, including but not limited to a term paper, thesis, dissertation, essay or report, intended for submission to any post-secondary institution in fulfillment of the requirements for a degree, diploma, certificate or course of study at any such institution.

      (b) “Person” means any individual, partnership, corporation or association.

      (c) “Post-secondary institution” means any public or private post-secondary educational institution. [1981 c.673 §§1,2; 1999 c.1051 §158]

Pennsylvania Consolidated Statutes

7324.  Unlawful sale of dissertations, theses and term papers.

(a)  Definitions.--As used in this section:

(1)  "Assignment" means any specific written, recorded, pictorial, artistic, or other academic task that is intended for submission to any university, academy, school or other educational institution which is chartered, incorporated, licensed, registered or supervised by the Commonwealth, in fulfillment of the requirements of a degree, diploma, certificate or course of study at any such institution.

(2)  "Prepare" means to create, write, or in any way produce in whole or substantial part, a term paper, thesis, dissertation, essay, report or other written, recorded, pictorial, artistic or other assignment for a fee.

(b)  Sale of assistance to student.--No person shall sell or offer for sale to any student enrolled in a university, college, academy, school or other educational institution within the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania any assistance in the preparation, research or writing of a dissertation, thesis, term paper, essay, report or other written assignment knowing, or under the circumstances having reason to know, that said assignment is intended for submission either in whole or substantial part under said student's name to such educational institution in fulfillment of the requirements for a degree, diploma, certificate or course of study.

(c)  Sale or distribution of assignment to student.--No person shall sell or offer for distribution any dissertation, thesis, term paper, essay, report or other written assignment to any student enrolled in a university, college, academy, school or any other institution within the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania knowing, or under the circumstances having reason to know, that said assignment is intended for submission either in whole or substantial part under said student's name to such educational institution in fulfillment of the requirement for a degree, diploma, certificate or course of study.

(d)  Sale or distribution for sale to student.--No person shall sell or offer for distribution any dissertation, thesis, term paper, essay, report or other written assignment to any person who, sells or offers for sale any such dissertation, thesis, term paper, essay, report or other written assignment to any student enrolled in a university, college, academy, school or other educational institution within the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania knowing, or under the circumstances having reason to know, that said assignment is intended for submission either in whole or substantial part under said student's name to such educational institution in fulfillment of the requirements for a degree, diploma, certificate or course of study.

(e)  Authorized activities and services.--Nothing herein contained shall prevent such educational institution or any member of its faculty or staff, from offering courses, instruction, counseling or tutoring for research or writing as part of a curriculum or other program conducted by such educational institution. Nor shall this section prevent any educational institution or any member of its faculty or staff from authorizing students to use statistical, computer, or any other services which may be required or permitted by such educational institution in the preparation, research or writing of a dissertation, thesis, term paper, essay, report or other written assignment. Nor shall this section prevent tutorial assistance rendered by other persons which does not include the preparation, research or writing of a dissertation, thesis, term paper, essay, report or other written assignment knowing, or under the circumstances having reason to know, that said assignment is intended for submission either in whole or substantial part under said student's name to such educational institution in fulfillment of the requirements for a degree, diploma, certificate or course of study. Nor shall any person be prevented by the provisions of this section from rendering services for a fee which shall be limited to the typing, transcription or reproduction of a manuscript.

(f)  Authorized sale of copyrighted material.--Nothing contained within this section shall prevent any person from selling or offering for sale a publication or other written material which shall have been registered under the United States Laws of Copyright: Provided, however, That the owner of such copyright shall have given his authorization or approval for such sale: And, provided further, That said person shall not know or under the circumstances have reason to know that said assignment is intended for submission either in whole, or substantial part, under a student's name as a dissertation, thesis, term paper, essay, report or other written assignment to such educational institution within the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in fulfillment of the requirements for a degree, diploma, certificate or course of study.

(g)  Grading.--Any person who violates the provisions of this section shall be guilty of a misdemeanor of the third degree.

(h)  Injunction.--Whenever there shall be a violation of this section an application also may be made by the Attorney General in the name of the people of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania to a court having jurisdiction to issue an injunction, and upon notice to the defendant of not less than five days, to enjoin and restrain the continuance of such violation; and if it shall appear to the satisfaction of the court or justice that the defendant has, in fact, violated this section, an injunction may be issued by such court, enjoining and restraining any further violation, without requiring proof that any person has, in fact, been injured or damaged thereby. In connection with any such proposed application, the Attorney General is authorized to take proof and make a determination of the relevant facts and to issue subpoenas in accordance with the laws and rules of civil procedure.  (July 27, 1973, P.L.226, No.58, eff. imd.)

Texas Statutes and Codes

Sec. 32.50. DECEPTIVE PREPARATION AND MARKETING OF ACADEMIC PRODUCT.

(a) For purposes of this section:

(1) "Academic product" means a term paper, thesis, dissertation, essay, report, recording, work of art, or other written, recorded, pictorial, or artistic product or material submitted or intended to be submitted by a person to satisfy an academic requirement of the person.

(2) "Academic requirement" means a requirement or prerequisite to receive course credit or to complete a course of study or degree, diploma, or certificate program at an institution of higher education.

(3) "Institution of higher education" means an institution of higher education or private or independent institution of higher education as those terms are defined by Section 61.003, Education Code, or a private postsecondary educational institution as that term is defined by Section 61.302, Education Code.

(b) A person commits an offense if, with intent to make a profit, the person prepares, sells, offers or advertises for sale, or delivers to another person an academic product when the person knows, or should reasonably have known, that a person intends to submit or use the academic product to satisfy an academic requirement of a person other than the person who prepared the product.

(c) A person commits an offense if, with intent to induce another person to enter into an agreement or obligation to obtain or have prepared an academic product, the person knowingly makes or disseminates a written or oral statement that the person will prepare or cause to be prepared an academic product to be sold for use in satisfying an academic requirement of a person other than the person who prepared the product.

(d) It is a defense to prosecution under this section that the actor's conduct consisted solely of action taken as an employee of an institution of higher education in providing instruction, counseling, or tutoring in research or writing to students of the institution.

(e) It is a defense to prosecution under this section that the actor's conduct consisted solely of offering or providing tutorial or editing assistance to another person in connection with the other person's preparation of an academic product to satisfy the other person's academic requirement, and the actor does not offer or provide substantial preparation, writing, or research in the production of the academic product.

(f) It is a defense to prosecution under this section that the actor's conduct consisted solely of typing, transcribing, or reproducing a manuscript for a fee, or of offering to do so.

(g) An offense under this section is a Class C misdemeanor. Added by Acts 1997, 75th Leg., ch. 730, Sec. 1, eff. Sept. 1, 1997. Renumbered from Penal Code Sec. 32.49 by Acts 1999, 76th Leg., ch. 62, Sec. 19.01(87), (88), eff. Sept. 1, 1999.

Virginia Code

18.2-505. Preparation, etc., of papers to be submitted for academic credit.

(a) No person shall prepare, cause to be prepared or sell any term paper, thesis, dissertation or other written material for another person, for profit, with the knowledge, or under circumstances in which he should reasonably have known, that such term paper, thesis, dissertation or other written material is to be submitted by any other person for academic credit at any public or private college, university or other institution of higher learning in this Commonwealth.

(b) No person shall make or disseminate, with the intent to induce any other person to enter into any obligation relating thereto, any statement, written or oral, that he will prepare or cause to be prepared, any term paper, thesis, dissertation or other written material, to be sold for profit, for or on behalf of any person who has been assigned the written preparation of such term paper, thesis, dissertation or other written material for academic credit at any public or private college, university or other institution of higher learning in this Commonwealth. (Code 1950, § 18.1-371.1; 1974, c. 342; 1975, cc. 14, 15.)

Washington Revised Code

28B.10.580 Term papers, theses, dissertations, sale of prohibited — Legislative findings — Purpose. (1) The legislature finds that commercial operations selling term papers, theses, and dissertations encourages academic dishonesty, and in so doing impairs the public confidence in the credibility of institutions of higher education whether in this state or any other to function within their prime mission, that of providing a quality education to the citizens of this or any other state.

(2) The legislature further finds that this problem, beyond the ability of these institutions to control effectively, is a matter of state concern, while at the same time recognizing the need for and the existence of legitimate research functions.

It is the declared intent of RCW 28B.10.580 through 28B.10.584, therefore, that the state of Washington prohibit the preparation for sale or commercial sale of term papers, theses and dissertations: PROVIDED, That such legislation shall not affect legitimate and proper research activities: PROVIDED FURTHER, That such legislation does not impinge on the rights, under the First Amendment, of freedom of speech, of the press, and of distributing information. [1981 c 23 § 1; 1979 c 43 § 1.]

28B.10.582 Term papers, theses, dissertations, sale of prohibited — Definitions. Unless the context clearly indicates otherwise, the words used in RCW 28B.10.580 through 28B.10.584 shall have the meaning given in this section:

     (1) "Person" means any individual, partnership, corporation, or association.

     (2) "Assignment" means any specific written, recorded, pictorial, artistic, or other academic task, including but not limited to term papers, theses, dissertations, essays, and reports, that is intended for submission to any postsecondary institution in fulfillment of the requirements of a degree, diploma, certificate, or course of study at any such educational institution.

     (3) "Prepare" means to create, write, or in any way produce in whole or substantial part a term paper, thesis, dissertation, essay, report, or other assignment for a monetary fee.

     (4) "Postsecondary institution" means any university, college, or other postsecondary educational institution. [1981 c 23 § 2; 1979 c 43 § 2.]

28B.10.584 Term papers, theses, dissertations, sale of prohibited — Violations enumerated — Exempted acts — Civil penalties — Injunctive relief.

(1) No person shall prepare, offer to prepare, cause to be prepared, sell, or offer for sale to any other person, including any student enrolled in a postsecondary institution, any assignment knowing, or under the circumstances having reason to know, that said assignment is intended for submission either in whole or substantial part under a student's name in fulfillment of the requirements for a degree, diploma, certificate, or course of study at any postsecondary institution.

     (2) No person shall sell or offer for sale to any student enrolled in a postsecondary institution any assistance in the preparation, research or writing of an assignment knowing or under the circumstances having reason to know, that said assignment is intended for submission either in whole or substantial part under said student's name to such educational institution in fulfillment of the requirements for a degree, diploma, certificate, or course of study.

     (3) Nothing contained in this section shall prevent any person from providing tutorial assistance, research material, information, or other assistance to persons enrolled in a postsecondary institution which is not intended for submission in whole or in substantial part as an assignment under the student's name to such institution. Nor shall any person be prevented by this section from rendering services for a monetary fee which includes typing, assembling, transcription, reproduction, or editing of a manuscript or other assignment: PROVIDED, That such services are not rendered with the intent of making substantive changes in a manuscript or other assignment.

     (4) Any person violating any provision of RCW 28B.10.58028B.10.582 or 28B.10.584 shall be subject to civil penalties of not more than one thousand dollars for each violation. Any court of competent jurisdiction is hereby authorized to grant such further relief as is necessary to enforce the provisions of this section, including the issuance of an injunction.

     (5) Any person against whom a judgment has been entered pursuant to subsection (4) of this section, shall upon any subsequent violation of RCW 28B.10.580, 28B.10.582 or 28B.10.584 be subject to civil penalties not to exceed ten thousand dollars. Any court of competent jurisdiction is hereby authorized to grant such further relief as is necessary to enforce the provisions of this section, including the issuance of an injunction.

     (6) Actions for injunction under the provisions of this section may be brought in the name of the state of Washington upon the complaint of the attorney general or any prosecuting attorney in the name of the state of Washington. [1979 c 43 § 3.]

Credits

This guide was prepared by Mary McCormick, Asst. Director for Research, Florida State University College of Law Research Center, with the assistance of Hunter Whaley, Reference Librarian and Lecturer-in Law, Columbia Law School.

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