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Law as a Learned Profession


  1. Sheldon Pollock,  Introduction, The Language of the Gods in the World of Men:  Sanskrit, Culture, and Power in Premodern India (2006) (excerpts) [Available on LibGuide].
  2. Jaspers, The Origin and Goal of History [Available on LibGuide]​.
    1. Foreword, page v.
    2. Introduction:  The Structure of World History, pages xiii-xvi.
    3. Chapter One:  The Axial Period, pages 1-21.
  3. Weber, The Religion of India [Available on LibGuide].
    1. ​Prefactory Note, page v.
    2. Chapter 1:  India and Hinduism, pages 3-5.
  4. Northrop, The Meeting of East and West [Available on LibGuide].
    1. Preface ix-xi.
    2. Chapter 1, The Contemporary World, 1-4, 12-14.
  5. 1 Sources of Indian Traditions (“1 Sources”).
    1. Preface to the Second Edition, pages xi-xiii.
    2. Preface to the First Edition, pages xv-xvii.
    3.  Explanatory Note and Guide to Pronunciation, pages xxi-xxiii.
  1. Jaspers, The Origin and Goal of History, Chapter 7, Orient and Occident. [Available on LibGuide].
  2. Northrop, The Meeting of East and West, Chapter IX, The Traditional Culture of the Orient, pp. 312-22 (stop at subsection “Confusianism and Taoism.”). [Available on LibGuide].
  3. Sources Part I, The Brahmanical Tradition: The Vedic Period, Introduction, pages 1-6.
  1. Orthodoxy: The Brahmanical Tradition in the Vedic Period.
    1. Introduction, pages 1-6 (review).
    2. Cosmic and Ritual Order in Vedic Literature, pages 7-28.
    3. The Ultimate Reality of the Upanishads, pages 29-39.
           a. Megasthenes, India [Available on LibGuide].
       b. Arrian’s Life of Alexander (excerpts) [Available on LibGuide].
      1. Alexandria in India, from Book IV, Chapter 22 (Alexander Reaches the River Cabul and Receives the Homage of Taxilus), to Book VI Chapter XX (Exploration of the Mouth of the Indus).
  2. Heterodoxies:  Jainism and Buddhism.
    1. The Background of Jainism and Buddhism, pages 43-48.
    2. Jainism.
      1. The Basic Doctrines of Jainism, pages 49-75.
      2. Jain Philosophy and Political Thought, pages 76-92.
    3. Buddhism.
      1. Theravada Buddhism, pages 93-152.
      2. Mahayana Buddhism [the “Greater Vehicle”], pages 153-187.
      3. The Vehicle of the Thunderbolt and the Decline of Buddhism in India, pages 188-99.

i. Elite Culture. Introduction, pages 203-12.
     1. Dharma: The First End of Man, pages 213-33.
     2. Artha:  The Second End of Man, pages 234-53.
     3. Kama: The Third End of Man, pages 254-73.
     4. Moksha: The Fourth End of Man, pages 274-341

ii. "Popular" Culture. The Songs of Medieval Hindu Devotion [Bhakti], pages 342-45.
     1. Shiva Bhakti, 345-46.
          a.  Basavanna, 347-8.
          b. Mahadevi, 349-50.
          c.  Lalla, 350-51.
     2. Vishnu Bhakti, 351.
          a. The Alvars, 351-52.
          b. [In Praise of Rama].
               i. Tulsidas, pp. 354-55.
          c. In Praise of Krishna, 359.
               i.  Surdas, 359-65.
               ii. Mirabai, 365-69.
     3. Devi Bhakti, 369-71.
     4. Nirguna Bhakti and the Sant Tradition, 371-73.
          a.  Kabir, 373-74.
          b. Ravidas, 376-78.

iii. Northrop, The Meeting of East and West. [Available on LibGuide].
     1. Chapter IX, The Traditional Culture of the Orient, 312.
          a. The Unity of Oriental Culture, 312-15.
          b. Its Intuitive Aesthetic Character, 315-22.
          c.  Traditional India, 358-74.
     2. Chapter X, The Meaning of Eastern Civilization, 375
          a. Oriental Positivism and Realism, 375-81.

iv. Williams James, Varieties of Religious Experience (section on mysticism). [Available on LibGuide].

Islam in Medieval India, 1 Sources.

  1. Introduction, 381-82.
  2. The Foundations of Islam in India, 383.
    1. The Historical Background, 384-88.
    2. The Coming of Islam to India, 388-91.
    3. Muslim Orthodoxy in India, 391.
      1. Piety:  The Key to Paradise, 391-92 (introduction only).
      2. Theology:  The Perfection of Faith, 393 (introduction only).
      3. Free Will, 395 (Introduction only).
      4. Propaganda:  The Indian Proof, 396-99.
    4. The Shari’a, or Islamic Code of Conduct, 399-402.
      1. The Bases of Jurisprudence, 402-03.
      2. Guidance in the Shari’a, 404-06.
  3. The Muslim Ruler in India, 408-46.
    1. The Legitimacy of Kingship, 410-16.
    2. Duties and Responsibilities of a Muslim Ruler, 416.
    3. The Ideal Social Order, 430.
    4. The Muslim Conquest and the Status of Hindus, 437.
  4. Islamic Mysticism in India, 447-50.
    1. Early Sufism in India, 450-54.
      1. The Quest for God the Beloved and the Knowledge of God, 454-56.
      2. The Preservation of God’s Transcendence…, 457-58.
      3. Sufi Acceptance of Orthodox Formalist Islam, 459-61.
    2. Syncretism and Orthodoxy under the Mughals, 463-64.
      1. Akbar’s Religious Outlook, 464-65.
        1. The Discussion in the Hall of Wisdom 465-69.
        2. The Divine Faith 469-71.
      2. Dara Shikoh and Pantheism, 471-75.
      3. Shaihk Ahmad Sirhindi:  The Reaction to Pantheistic Mysticism, 475-78.
      4. Shah Wali-Ullah:  Sufism and the Crisis of Islam in India, 478-83.
    3. Mystical Poetry and Popular Religion, 483-89.

i. Sikhism, 1 Sources pages 491-510.

i. 2 Sources of Indian Traditions, Preface to Third Edition, xxv-xxviii.
     1. The Eighteenth Century:  Ferment and Change, 1-2.
          a. The Reorganization of Political Power, 2-4.
               i. Aurangzeb:  Letters to His Sons, 4.
               ii. Shah Wali Allah: 
                    1. The Urgency of Political Instability, 5- 6.
                    2. The Role of the Islamic Ruler, 6.
               iii. Rebelling Against the Mughals: The Sikhs, 8-9.
                    1. Muhammad Qasim on Banda Bahadur’s Sikh Army (introduction only), 9.
                    2. The Sikh Religious Code: Lives of Discipline and Devotion, 10-11.
               iv. Marathas: Courtiers, Rebels, Raiders, and State Builders, 11.
                    1. The History of Khafi Khan and the Story of Tara Bai (introduction only), 12.
                    2. Ahilya Bai Holkar:  A Maratha Woman Ruler, 13-13.
                    3. The Marathas as Raiders:  A Bengali Perspective, 14.
                    4. Forts and War (introduction only), 15.
                    5. The Reality of War for a Common Soldier, 16.
                    6. The Chronicle of Bhausahib:  Defeat in 1761 of the Marathas at Panipat (introduction only), 16-17.
               v. Tipu Sultan: Visionary Ruler of Mysore (introduction only), 18-19.
          b. The Influence of Commerce, 20-21 (“second trend” of 18th century, “new positions of influence of various previously subordinated groups,” 20).
               i. Brokers and Traders: The Powers Behind the Thrones (introduction only), 21.
               ii. “Businessmen Are the Glory and Ornament of the Kingdom” (introduction only), 22.
               iii. Ananda Ranga Pillai:  Merchant and Agent of the French (introduction only), 23.
               iv. Ghulam Husain Khan (introduction only), 24-25.
               v. Abu Talib:  Cultural Comparisons, India Versus the West [as to women], 26-27.
          c. On the Margins of Power, 27-28 (third trend, “activities of peasants and tribal people”).
          d. Religious Expressions, Devotional and Intellectual, 30 (fourth trend).
               i. Hindu.
                    1. Ramprasad Sen:  Singing to the Goddess in Bengal, 31.
                    2. The Poetry of Nararidas, 33.
                    3. Tyagaraja, 35.
                    4. Dayaram of Gujarat, 37.
                    5. Myddupalani:  A Telugu Poet Advises Krishna How to Make Love, 39-41.
               ii. Muslim, especially Sufi, 41-42.
                    1. Shah Abdu ul-Latif, 42.
                    2. Bullhe Shah, 43-44.
                    3. Waris Shah, 45.
                    4. Shah Wali Allah’s Jurisprudence, 46-51.
          e. “Revolution in Bengal”:  The East India Company, 51-52 (fifth trend).
               i. Shah Abdu Ul-Aziz:  Islam in Danger, 54-55.
               ii. Harsukh Rai’s Epitaph for the Eighteenth Century, 55-56.
     2. The Early to Mid Nineteenth Century:  Debates over Reform and Challenge to Empire, 57-60.
          a. Henry Derozio: Poet and Educator, 60-62.
          b. The Decision to Introduce English Education, 62-63.
               i. Sir William Jones:  The Orientalist Viewpoint, 63-65.
               ii. Rammohan Roy and the Uselessness of Orientalist Policies, 65-68.
               iii. Thomas Babington Macaulay and the Case for English Education, 68-72.
          c. Rammohan Roy:  Pioneer in East-West Exchange, 72-78.
          d. Ishvarchandra Vidyasagar:  Social Reformer and Champion of Women’s Rights, 79-80.
          e. Nilakantha Goreh:  A Traditional Pandit Takes on the Missionaries [and Loses], 83-84.
          f.  Rassundari Devi:  The First Bengali Autobiographer Looks Back on a Restricted Life, 86.
          g. Bibi Ashraf:  A Young Muslim Girl Struggles to Educate Herself, 90.
          h. The Indian Rebellion of 1857:  Deliberations, Fatalities, and Consequences, 96-116.
          ​i. Can Muslims Live in a Christian State? 116-17.
     3. The Later Nineteenth Century:  Leaders of Reform and Revival, 120-22.
          a. Debendranath Tagore:  Renewer of the Brahmo Samaj, 122-26.
          b. Keshab Chandra Sen and the Indianification of Christianity, 126-28.
          c. Dayandand Sarawsati:  Vedic Revivalist, 131-32.
          d. Shri Ramakrishna:  Mystic and Spiritual Teacher, 136-37.
          e. Swami Vivekananda: Hindu Missionary to the West, 141.
          f. Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan:  Enlightened Islam in a British Context, 147-49.
          g. Amir Ali and “The Spirit of Islam,”152-53.
          h. Mahadev Govind Ranade:  Pioneer Maharashatrian Reformer, 156-57.
          i. Jotirao Phule:  Radical Reformer, 160-61.
          j. Pandita Ramabai Sarasvati:  Pioneering Feminist and Reformer, 165-66.
          k. Tarabai Shinde and a Feminist Defense of Women, 171.
          l.  D. K. Karve and Anandibai Karve:  Living with Widow Remarriage, 173-74.
          m. Ashraf Ali Thanawi:  Instructing the Respectable Muslim Woman, 177.
          n.  Nagendrabala Dasi and the New Companionate Marriage, 180-81.   
     4. Liberal Social and Political Thought in the Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Century:  The Moderates, 183-86.
          a. Dadabhai Naoroji:  Architect of Indian Nationalism, 187-88.
               i. The Pros and Cons of British Rule, 188-91.
               ii. The Moral Impoverishment of India, 192-94.
          b. Sir Surendranath Banerjea:  Bengali Moderate, 194-95.
          c. Mahadev Govind Ranade:  Economic Proposals, 199.
          d. Gopal Krishna Gokhale:  Servant of India, 203-4.
               i. Improving the Lot of Low-Caste Hindus, 205-8.
               ii. The Servants of India Society, 208-10.
          e. Ramesh Chunder Dutt:  Pioneer Economic Historian, 210-1.
          f.  Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan:  An Anti-Congress Speech, 216.
          g. Badruddin Tyabji and Rahmatullah Sayani:  Why Muslims Should Join the Congress, 224-5.
          h. Rokeya Sakhawat Hossain:  A Feminist Utopia and the Challenge to Women’s Seclusion, 237-8.
               i. Men in the Zenana, 238-40.
               ii. The Secluded Ones:  Stories of Purdah, 240-41.
          i. Cornelia Sorabji:  India’s First Woman Barrister, 241-2.
                i. Advocating for Women, 242-6.
          j. Sarojini Naidu:  Congress Nightingale and Champion of Women’s Rights, 246-7.
     5. Radical Politics and Cultural Criticism, 1880-1914:  The Extremists, 250-2.
          a. Bankim Chandra Chatterji:  Nationalist Author, 252-54.
               i. Hail to the Mother, 254.
          b. Bal Gangadhar Tilak: “Father of Indian Unrest,” 262-4.
               i. The Gita Versus the Penal Code, 264.
          c. [Surendranath Banerjea on the Partition of Bengal], 268.
          d. Aurobindo Ghose:  Mystic Patriot, 271-82.
          e. Sarala Devi Shaudhurani and the Revival of Revolutionary Feeling, 282-3.
          f. The Development o Linguistic Consciousness:  Hindi versus Urdu, 287.
               i. Vakil Ratnaachand], Hindi and Urdu in the Courtroom, 287-9.
          g. Lala Lajpat Rai:  “Lion of the Punjab,” 289-90.
               i. An Open Letter to Sayyid Ahmad Khan, 291-93.
               ii. The Coming Political Struggle, 294-6.
               iii. Untouchability Must Go, 296-7.
               iv. Why India Is in Revolt Against British Rule, 299-301.
          h. Rabindranath Tagore:  Poet, Educator, and India’s Ambassador to the World, 301-18.
          i. Muhammad Iqbal:  Poet and Philosopher of Islam, 318-28.
          j. Art for the Nation, 328-29.
               i. Ananda Coomaraswamy, 329.
               ii. Abanindranath Tagore, 332.
               iii. Amrita Sher-Gil, 335.
     6. Mahatma Gandhi and Responses, 338.
          a. Writings of Mahatma Gandhi, 345-376.
          b. Responses to Gandhi, 376-451.
     7. To Independence and Partition, 453-62.
     8. Issues in Post-Independence India, 591-4.
          a. Giving Birth to the Nation, 594.
               i. Tagore’s National Anthem, 594-5.
               ii. Nehru’s Tryst with Destiny, 595-6.
               iii. Dr. B. R. Ambedkar, Law Minister, 597.
          b. The Constitution of India, 600-4.
          c. The Unity and Integrity of the Nation, 604.
          d. Democracy and Education, 624-5.
          e. Children, Education, Labor, and the State, 635.
          f.  Socialism, Economic Development, and Poverty, 644.
               i. Nehru’s Vision:  Socialism and it Alternatives, 644-46.
          g. Toward Equality and Social Justice, 659.
               i. Vinoba Bhave:  Get Rid of Institutions, 659.
               ii. Communist Insurgencies, 662.
               iii. Ranajit Guha and the Subaltern School:  Challenging Received Interpretations, 668-70.
               iv. Smitu Kothari: The Narmada Movement, National Planning, and Popular Resistance, 670-1.
               v.  The Continuing Oppressions of Caste, 673-90.
               vi. Seeking Women’s Rights:  Fulfilling Constitutional Guarantees, 690-700.
               vii. Muslims in Post-Independence India, 700.
               viii. Hindu Nationalism, Communalism, and Secularism, 707-32 [excerpt later, 27 Oct. 2015].
          h. Foreign Policy:  Sovereignty, 732-42.
          i. Post-Script:  Who Speaks for India?  748-9.
     9. Pakistan, 750-3.
          a. Birth of the Nation, 753-54.
          b. 1947-1958: Parliamentary Democracy and Islamic Identity, 756-59.
               i. Visions of Pakistan, 759.
                    1. Muhammed Ali Jinnah:  The Vision of Secular Pakistan, 759-61.
                    2. The Munir Report:  Can There Be an Islamic State?, 764.
                    3. Sayyid Abul ala Maududi, The Islamist Vision of an Islamist State, 767-74.
          c. 1958-1971:  The Hegemony of the Military, 783-88.
          d. 1972-1977:  Civilian Rule by Zulfikar Ali Bhutto:  Democracy and Islamic Socialism, 795-6.
          e. 1977-1988:  Military Rule and Islamization:  The Zia Years, 803-04.
          f.  1988-1999:  Restoration of Civilian Rule, 815.
          g. 1999-2008:  The Military Rule of General Pervez Musharraf and Its Later Civilianization, 817-8.
               i. Musharraf’s views, 818-21.
               ii. Education in Pakistan, 821-9.
          h. 2008 and Beyond:  Questions of Pakistan’s National Identity, 829-32.
     10. Bangladesh, 833.
          a. Two National Songs, 833-5.
          b. The Formative Historical Context: 1905-1947, pages 836-38.
          c. Life in East Pakistan, 1947-1971:  Moving Toward the Split, 838-9.
               i. The Language Movement, 839.
               ii. Political Jockeying and the Redressing of Perceived Wrongs:  1952 to 1958, pages 841-2.
               iii. The Argument for Joint Electorates, 844.
               iv. The Transition to Military Rule and the Escalation of Bengali Nationalism: 1958-1971, pages 846-8.
               v. Moving Toward Civil War: The Horror, the Victory, 850-2.
          d. After 1971: The Awami League Government and the Failure of an Ideal, 862.
          e. Military Rule and the Move to Bangladeshi Nationalism, Islamization, and the Rehabilitation of “Collaborators,” 870-2.
          f. The Defense of Secularism in Bangladesh, 882-83.
          g. The Return to Democracy, and Continuing Challenges for Civil Society, 887-9.
               i. The Chittagong Hilll Tracts and the Defiance of “National Integrity,” 889-90.
               ii. Literary Critiques of Bangladeshi Society, 891.
               iii. Muhammad Yunus:  Micro-Credit and the Bangladeshi Miracle, 895-98.

ii. Northrop, The Meeting of East and West. [Available on LibGuide].
     1. Chapter XI, Contemporary India, Japan, and China at 405, “The Indian Problem” at 416-17.
     2. Chapter XII, The Solution of the Basic Problem at 436, “The Reconciliation of the East and the West” at 454-58.
     ​3. Chapter XIII, Practical Wisdom at 479 (introductory paragraph only).

iii. Review Jaspers, The Origin and Goal of History[Available on LibGuide].
     1. Part III, Chapter Five, pages 272-76.

iv. Weber, The Religion of India. [Available on LibGuide].
     1. Chapter X, The General Character of Asiatic Religion at 329-43.
     2. Sheldon Pollock,  Epilogue, The Language of the Gods in the World of Men: Sanskrit, Culture, and Power in Premodern India (2006) (excerpts).


Course Description

The Law and the Indian Scriptures compares basic themes in the civilization of India with parallel themes in the civilization of the West, with emphasis in both cases on their relevance to contemporary law.   The initial focus will be on how the values embodied in the Scriptures of India’s two main indigenous religions, Hinduism and Buddhism, each formed the basis for a multi-ethnic imperial civilization.  The course will then look for parallels between these regimes and the ideal of the Western republican tradition:  rule by the wise for the common good.  It will also examine two matters near the core of Indian religion that are more peripheral in the West:  mysticism and meditation.  Finally, the course will examine claims, like those of Max Weber, that the values of traditional Indian civilization have undermined the cultural prerequisites of advanced capitalism, and the reaction of Indian thinkers to Western thought.

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